Michigan Painters (248) 787-0963

Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc is a local Michigan Painting and Drywall Contractor  with over 15 years experience, located in the West Bloomfield, Oakland County Michigan area.  We provide our services to the Metro Detroit, Oakland County, Macomb County and Wayne County areas of Michigan. 

We provide quality residential, industrial and commercial interior and exterior painting, drywall installation, drywall finishing, drywall repairs along with other remodeling and restoration services.  

We pride ourselves on attention to detail and custom quality work so you can rest assure that the ending results of anything we touch will be as good as gold!  If you're looking for reliable and quality workmanship in the South East region of Michigan, call 248-787-0963  

Custom Painting for the Quality Conscious Business and Homeowner's

• Premium Grade Coatings Used
• Thorough Surface Preparation
• Fully Insured
• Quality Guaranteed

For a free estimate and other services, please contact us at (248) 787-0963

Painting can enhance the appearance of your home or workplace significantly, whether it is interior or exterior painting project you want to have done. We work with real estate agents and interior designers and all of them agree on one thing: PAINTING IS THE CHEAPEST UPGRADE OF YOUR HOME. There is nothing out there that will get you more return on your investment than simply painting your house. Professionally that is.  For free estimates (248) 787-0963

You can take a dull looking $400,000 home with builder’s off whites and completely transform your house into a mansion that looks like a million bucks. Now, you probably won’t get a million bucks for it but you will sell it higher than you normally would, especially if it’s decorated and staged.  www.westbloomfieldpainters.com

That’s why many house owners that find selling their homes difficult will turn to a painter for help. And we can help! Not just with your home but with any painting project you may have. Our experience professional residential house painters will also determine the best possible application method for the specific project, including airless spray technology.

There is a common misconception that airless spray painting is inefficient and wastes paint. But there are a number of factors that dramatically change the outcome of such a method of application. Our team of experienced professional painters knows how to use the industrial airless spray technology to maximize use of every gallon of paint.

This includes using the right pressure for the paint being sprayed and choosing the correct tip size for the specific work being performed to minimize over spray, therefore, less wasted paint and we are using straight paint (un-thinned). That results in having to spray fewer coats than if painted by roller or brush. Especially with a brush (which you have to thin so it spreads more evenly and brush marks are minimal, although not completely vanished) and that contributes to using about the same amount or in some instances even less paint than conventional methods of application, contradicting the common misconception.

Sprayed surfaces such as trim and doors tend to have a more uniform appearance that resembles the smooth surface of a fridge as opposed to surfaces that look like an orange peel (caused by roller) or brush marks (caused by brush). In any case, our interior exterior painters will help you with all of your painting needs in a courteous and timely manner.

Do you live in Michigan or doing Business in Michigan? Are you in need of a Reliable and Quality Michigan Painting and Drywall Contractor?

We focus on individual service and attention to detail that produces dramatic results in a personal, professional and cost-effective manner. We take great pride in our ability to provide professional service and efficient completion of all our project needs.

Within the many years of experience that Golden Touch Painting and Drywall has had in the commercial, industrial and residential areas of interior and exterior painting, drywall hanging, drywall finishing, carpentry, and many other remodeling and restoration services in the Oakland County Michigan area, our team of precision quality interior painters, exterior painters, drywall hangers, drywall finishers and carpenters can take care of almost any situation within these fields of operation! From a straightforward paint job to a complete renovation.

We have been contracted to paint, remodel or restore nearly every type of structure, be it a restaurant, an historic property, an apartment complex, a Home Owners Association, a custom home, a place of business, an entire commercial office complex or an industrial site, we've done it all. 

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc is a company who has worked hard to earn a reputation for our quality craftsmanship and we look forward to showing the residents of Oakland County Michigan that it is well deserved.

Interior Living room painted in Mi.

Michigan Custom Interior Painting

Let us restore and keep the value of your home or place of business!

Oakland County Michigan's Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Company understands that your home or business can be one of your most valuable assets, so we strive to make the finished product something that helps retain its value for decades to come. Our friendly and respectful staff will treat your house or place of business like it was their own and our crews are trained to be responsive and hassle-free when dealing with clients. 

We do our best to try to give you your privacy while we work and will be more than happy to thoroughly answer any questions you may have. Our quotation process is simple, without convoluted processes and fees. Step by step, Golden touch Painting and Drywall experts will walk you through your home or place of business to understand the precise needs of each individual room for any interior remodeling questions and inspect every curve and nook on the outside for exterior work. Golden Touch Painting and Drywall's thorough and experienced Michigan painting and drywall staff will make sure your home or businesses painting project, remodeling project or restoration project is complete, on-budget and on-time!

It is important to us to build a strong relationship with you the communities, business owners, home owners and contractors which we serve. It's our goal to leave every customer satisfied, wanting to use us for many years to come and also recommend us to others.

Whether you're a perfectionist looking for the best quality custom work or a Realtor simply looking to quickly fix up a property, you can assure Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc will provide the necessary services you need with golden results. We strive to be one of Michigan's leading interior and exterior painting, drywall, and carpentry companies.

Are you looking for Professionalism?  Well you found it!

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall's team of qualified professionals undergo thorough training in advanced painting, drywall and carpentry techniques and safety operations. Our staff has a positive and helpful approach towards answering customers’ questions and addressing your needs.

Attention to detail and custom finishes are our priorities. The most important part of a top-quality paint job is not just the painting, it is the preparation before paint is applied. Remember that paint is only as good as the surface it goes on. We take meticulous care in surface preparation and selection of outstanding surfacing materials and finishes in which we use.
Believe it or not but carpentry, drywall and painting all deal with one another, each depending on the other to look there best, so when you have the best experts in each one of the field's putting together top quality work, you can bet on a A1 top notch quality job being performed, and that's what Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc delivers to all of our customers.

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall recognizes the importance of providing our services at times that are convenient and necessary to you. Therefore, we provide crews on off-hours and weekends so our work will not interfere with your normal day-to-day operations and business.
For our employees, we encourage the free exchange of ideas and provide opportunities for training, employment, career advancement, and economic security fairly and equally to all who would apply themselves, as well as to provide a safe working environment by establishing good safety practices in compliance with current federal, state and local laws.

Michigan's Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc. is a group of painting, drywall and carpentry craftsman devoted to expanding painting, drywall and carpentry knowledge, and to preserve and beautify Oakland County Michigan and the surrounding areas.

Please do not get us mixed up with your regular ordinary handyman service or other painting contractors in the Michigan area, because all of the individuals that work for Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc are professional and reliable craftsman, each specializing in there own field of operations with many years of experience under there belts. For instance, we have certain painters who are more knowledgeable and experienced dealing with high end residential custom repaints, also we have other professional painters who are more experienced with commercial painting aspects, others who are more experienced with interior painting, and others who are more experienced with exterior painting and the same goes for our drywall crews and carpentry crews.

So whatever your needs might be, you can rest assure that Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc of West Bloomfield Oakland County Michigan will provide you with the best qualified professionals, performing the best quality work and craftsmanship available each in there own fields of operation.

Oakland County Michigan Specials:

15% off- complete repaints of Residential Exteriors to the first 20 customers to sign up for the spring and summer 2011 season.
10% off- complete repaints of Residential interiors (Dec. – Apr.
Multiple room discounts, Realtor discounts
Referral bonuses
Preferred customer discounts

 We are happy to provide our Interior and Exterior Painting, drywall and carpentry services to all of these communities and cities in the Oakland, Macomb & Wayne Counties of Michigan.

Auburn Hills
Beverly Hills
Bingham Farms
Bloomfield Hills
Farmington Hills
Franklin Village
Hazel Park
Huntington Woods
Keego Harbor
Lake Angelus
Lake Orion
Lathrup Village
Lyon Township
Madison Heights
Oak Park
Orchard Lake
Pleasant Ridge
Rochester Hills
Rose Township
Royal Oak
South Lyon
Sylvan Lake
Walled Lake
West Bloomfield
White Lake
Wolverine Lake

Oakland County Zip Codes:

48007 48009 48017 48025 48030 48033 48034 48037 48067 48069 48070 48071 48072 48073 48075 48076 48083 48084 48085 48086 48098 48099 48165 48178 48220 48237 48301 48302 48304 48306 48307 48308 48309 48320 48322 48323 48324 48325 48326 48327 48328 48329 48331 48332 48333 48334 48335 48336 48340 48341 48342 48346 48348 48350 48356 48357 48359 48360 48362 48363 48367 48370 48371 48374 48375 48376 48377 48380 48381 48382 48383 48386 48390 48393 48442 48462

Wayne County Michigan, Canton 48187, Canton 48188, Dearborn 48120, Dearborn 48121, Dearborn 48123, Dearborn 48124, Dearborn 48126, Dearborn 48128, Dearborn Heights 48125, Dearborn Heights 48127, Dearborn Hts 48125, Dearborn Hts 48127, Ecorse 48229, Flat Rock 48134, Garden City 48135, Garden City 48136, Gibraltar 48173, Grosse Ile 48138, Grosse Pointe 48215, Grosse Pointe 48224, Grosse Pointe 48230, Grosse Pointe 48236, Grosse Pointe Farms 48230, Grosse Pointe Farms 48236, Grosse Pointe Park 48215, Grosse Pointe Park 48224, Grosse Pointe Park 48230, Grosse Pointe Park 48236, Grosse Pointe Shores 48230, Grosse Pointe Shores 48236, Grosse Pointe Woods 48230, Grosse Pointe Woods 48236, Hamtramck 48211, Hamtramck 48212, Harper Woods 48225, Highland Park 48203, Inkster 48141, Lincoln Park 48146, Livonia 48150, Livonia 48151, Livonia 48152, Livonia 48153, Livonia 48154, Melvindale 48122, New Boston 48164, Northville 48167, Northville 48168, Northville Township 48167, Northville Twp 48167, Plymouth 48170, Redford 48239, Redford 48240, River Rouge 48218, Riverview 48192, Riverview 48193, Rockwood 48173, Romulus 48174, Southgate 48195, Sumpter Twp 48111, Taylor 48180, Trenton 48183, Van Buren Twp 48111, Wayne 48184, Westland 48185, Westland 48186, Woodhaven 48183, Wyandotte 48192, Wyandotte 48193
Macomb County Michigan, Armada 48005, Bruce 48065, Bruce Township 48065, Bruce TWP 48065, Center Line 48015, Chesterfield 48047, Chesterfield 48051, Clinton Township 48035, Clinton Township 48036, Clinton Township 48038, Clinton Twp 48035, Clinton Twp 48036, Clinton Twp 48038, East Detroit 48021, Eastpointe 48021, Fraser 48026, Harrison Township 48045, Harrison Twp 48045, Lenox 48048, Lenox 48050, Macomb 48042, Macomb 48044, Mount Clemens 48043, Mount Clemens 48046, New Baltimore 48047, New Baltimore 48051, New Haven 48048, New Haven 48050, Ray 48096, Ray Twp 48096, Richmond 48062, Romeo 48065, Roseville 48066, Saint Clair Shores 48080, Saint Clair Shores 48081, Saint Clair Shores 48082, Selfridge 48045, Selfridge Angb 48045, Shelby Township 48315, Shelby Township 48316, Shelby Township 48317, Shelby Township 48318, Shelby Twp 48315, Shelby Twp 48316, Shelby Twp 48317, Shelby Twp 48318, St Clair Shrs 48080, St Clair Shrs 48081, St Clair Shrs 48082, St Clr Shores 48080, St Clr Shores 48081, St Clr Shores 48082, Sterling Heights 48310, Sterling Heights 48311, Sterling Heights 48312, Sterling Heights 48313, Sterling Heights 48314, Sterling Hts 48310, Sterling Hts 48311, Sterling Hts 48312, Sterling Hts 48313, Sterling Hts 48314, Utica 48315, Utica 48316, Utica 48317, Utica 48318, Warren 48088, Warren 48089, Warren 48090, Warren 48091, Warren 48092, Warren 48093, Warren 48397, Washington Twp 48094, Washingtonn Twp 48095

Metro Detroit Michigan Painting and Drywall Contractor paints a pretty picture for Michigan Charities and Churches.

Mark Maupin from Brick Repair LLC and Mike DeLuca from Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc. (248) 787-0963 paint one heck of a pretty picture of what the Metro Detroit community is really about!

When I spoke with Mike DeLuca, he told me he was looking forward to giving back to the community that had kept them working through his own hard times.  Mike is one of those truly honest contractors, who is delighted and feels blessed to have the opportunity to give back to the community.  Mike and Mark have been working in Michigan’s past good years and also now during these unfortunate rough times of our economy.

Mike Said “It has been rough for the past few years.  I know that a lot of Michigan contractors have been struggling to keep there heads above water, and I was no exception.  Our economy is not the same as it was 7 years ago.  I feel blessed to have a roof over my head and to be able to keep busy during these rough times of our economy.  I was blessed to have a few local church’s help me out when I needed it.  So it only feels right to give back.”

Mike Run's a small painting & drywall company, in Oakland county Mi. they have been in the home repair and restoration industry for over 14 years. They are happy to provide the following services. Interior & Exterior Painting, Epoxy floor coatings, Murals, Staining and varnishing, Faux Finishes (multiple methods), Wall paper removal, Wall paper hanging, Caulking, Fire and Water Damage Repair, Insurance work, Power washing, Block or Concrete water proofing, Deck restoration, Aluminum fence painting, Steele structure coatings, Sand Blasting, Drywall Installation, Drywall Repair, Drywall Hanging, Drywall Finishing, Popcorn ceilings & other textured wall & ceiling applications, Rough & Finish Carpentry, Rotted wood replacement, Basement Finishing, Interior Demolition.

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Mike and Mark are looking to find a church or charity to provide there services to free of charge.  They said “We will provide the labor and tools, if they provide the material.  We have an opening available in our calendar on Mar. 15th and if we can find someone to help during that time it would be a great way to ring in the New Year”.  We hope any information gained is beneficial please feel free to call Mike for a consultation on any painting project. (248) 787-0963 or go to www.oaklandcountypainter.com

If your in need of a great Masonry Contractor visit http://michiganchimneyrepair.com/default.aspx

Are you thinking about renting, buying or updating and remodeling a house or home?  Here are some facts and information about the dangers of lead based paints from Wikipedia:

Lead-based paint in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Lead-based paint in the United States resulted in a court case against the Lead Industries Association.
Due in great part to studies carried out by Philip J. Landrigan, paint containing more than 0.06% (by weight of dried product) lead was banned for residential use in the United States in 1978 by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (16 Code of Federal Regulations CFR 1303). The U.S. Government defines "lead-based paint" as any "paint, surface coating that contains lead equal to or exceeding one milligram per square centimeter (1.0 mg/cm2) or 0.5% by weight."[1] Some states have adopted this or similar definitions of "lead-based paint." These definitions are used to enforce regulations that apply to certain activities conducted in housing constructed prior to 1978, such as abatement, or the permanent elimination of a "lead-based paint hazard."
The U.S. Government and many states have regulations regarding lead-based paint. Many of them apply to evaluating a property for lead-based paint. There are two different testing procedures that are similar but yield different information. Lead-based paint inspections will evaluate all painted surfaces in a complex to determine where lead-based paint, if any, is present. The procedures for lead inspections is outlined in the HUD Guidelines, Chapter 7, 1997 Revision. The other testing is a lead-based paint risk assessment. In this testing, only deteriorated painted surfaces are tested and dust wipe samples are collected. This information will help the risk assessor determine if there are any lead hazards. Many property owners decided to get a combination of both tests to determine where the lead-based paint is present and what hazards are present as well. Risk assessments are outlined in the HUD Guidelines, Chapter 5. In addition, if a child is poisoned in a property, the owner may be required to perform abatement (permanent elimination of the lead hazard).
In 1996, the Lead-Based Paint Disclosure Regulation was enacted. It requires owners of pre-1978 "target housing" to disclose to potential buyers or renters all known information about the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the property. It requires that the potential buyer or tenant be given the lead information pamphlet, "Protect Your Family From Lead In Your Home," or other United States Environmental Protection Agency‎-approved pamphlet as well as a specific disclosure statement. The option of whether to test for the presence of lead-based paint is left to the owner, so long as a decision not to test is disclosed.
EPA signed a new regulation (Renovation, Repair and Painting (RRP))[2] regarding the renovation of child-occupied buildings built before 1978 on April 22, 2008. The rule (Federal Register: July 15, 2009 (Volume 74, Number 134)) became effective April 22, 2010. Under the rule, contractors performing renovation, repair and painting projects that disturb lead-based coatings (including lead paint, shellac or varnish) in child-occupied facilities built before 1978 must be certified and must follow specific work practices to prevent lead contamination. EPA’s RRP rule impacts many construction trades, including general contractors and special trade contractors, painters, plumbers, carpenters, window installers, wood floor refinishers and electricians. Activities performed by all of these trades can disturb lead-based paint and have the potential to create hazardous lead dust. For most individuals, eight hours of training is required. However, individuals who have successfully completed renovation courses developed by HUD or EPA, or an abatement worker or supervisor course accredited by EPA or an authorized State or Tribal program, can become certified renovators by taking a four hour EPA-accredited renovator refresher training.
The RRP rule is controversial, primarily due to the increased cost remodelers incur as a result of having to set up dust containment apparatuses,[3] including sealing off doorways and HVAC ducts with plastic. Various national trade associations have been very vocal in their opposition,[4] some going so far as to sue the EPA. Still, the EPA is deliberating expanding the rule to require contractors to pass a third-party dust wipe clearance exam[5] to in order to complete remodel work in pre-1978 buildings.
Although the rule was not fully implemented until April 2010, certain elements were required before, and others required attention well before April 2010.
Before April 2009 – Contractors that disturb paint in homes, residential buildings, schools and child care facilities built prior to 1978 had to provide lead hazard information prior to the start of the job to building owners, occupants, and to the families of children using the facilities by distributing EPA’s new Renovate Right brochure.[6] As of April 2009 – Trainers could begin to apply to EPA or an EPA-approved state for accreditation, and, once approved, contractors and construction trade workers could begin to take the training to become certified. Beginning October 2009 – Firms could apply for EPA or state certification. Beginning April 2010 – All businesses engaged in renovation, repair or painting activities in homes, residential buildings, schools and child care facilities built prior to 1978 must be certified, use certified workers, and follow specific lead-safe work practices to prevent lead contamination.[7]

[edit] State action against the lead paint industry

The state of Rhode Island filed a public nuisance lawsuit in 1999 State of Rhode Island v. Lead Industries Association to get the former manufacturers of lead paint to pay for the clean up of current lead hazards in Rhode Island. After a trial that ended in a hung jury in 2002, the state refiled the case. In February 2006, the jury decided in favor of the state and said that Sherwin-Williams, NL Industries and Millennium Holdings would have to pay for the clean-up of lead paint in the state. On July 1, 2008, the Rhode Island Supreme Court in a landmark decision overturned the verdict,[8] dismissing the case stating that "the State of Rhode Island 'cannot allege' facts sufficient to state a claim for common law public nuisance against lead pigment manufacturers."[9]
In 2007, the Missouri Supreme Court[10] and the New Jersey Supreme Court[11] also rejected the use of the public nuisance theory in lead paint lawsuits, leaving Ohio and California as the only two remaining public nuisance cases.
The California Supreme Court has reviewed the contingency fee agreement between the municipalities and private counsel. A briefing schedule is currently being set.[12] But in recent rulings the Supreme Court held the contingent fee agreement is improper stating that “When a government attorney has a personal interest in the litigation, the neutrality so essential to the system is violated.”[13]
While the City of Columbus, Ohio voluntary dropped its lawsuit against the paint industry after the Rhode Island decision,[14] the State of Ohio's suit remains.

[edit] Real estate maintenance and renovation

Humans can be poisoned during unsafe renovations or repainting jobs on housing that has lead paint. Therefore, homeowners are encouraged to carefully stabilize any deteriorated (peeling, chipping, cracking, etc.) paint in a lead-safe manner. More than 250,000 children in the United States have dangerous levels of lead in their bodies.[15]
Working in a lead-safe manner means avoiding dry sanding, dry scraping, removing paint by torching/burning, the use of heat guns over 1100°F, machine-sanding or grinding without HEPA filtered dust collection or HEPA-filtered vacuum. These methods are now prohibited by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) because they have been proved to create significant levels of lead dust during remodeling, renovation and painting. They must be avoided, especially in properties where children under age six reside. Adult workers using unsafe work practices or improper protective gear may also become lead-poisoned.
There are specialized paint strippers for use with lead paint such as LEAD-OUT Paint Stripper, Strip-Tox, Lead-X, and others. Some of these specialized strippers render lead non-hazardous decreasing the risks associated with lead paint removal.
HUD requires a dust test for "clearance" at the end of any remodeling or repainting job be performed by a third-party professional who is independent of the entity performing the work. Contact your state's lead-poisoning prevention program (call the local health department or environmental department) or look in your Yellow Pages director under "lead paint" or "environmental consultants" to locate a lead-based paint professional who can do a clearance examination for your job.
Lead evaluations of paint are usually performed by a field testing method known as X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) using equipment such as the Olympus Innov-X LBP4000, RMD LPA-1, or the Thermo Scientific's Niton. XRF is the preferred method because it is not destructive and a reading is usually obtained in about 4–8 seconds with a 95% accuracy at the 2-sigma level.
Instruments of this sort have an inconclusive range, and when a reading falls in this range (range is different for each instrument and model), a paint chip may be taken and sent for laboratory analysis. Testing for lead in dust, water, and air also require laboratory analysis. Commercially available lead test kits are often used to test for the presence of lead, but they are not reliable and not authorized by HUD to be used in determining if a property is lead-based-paint free.
The home's year of construction can be a clue as to the likelihood that lead is present in its paint. Generally, two thirds of homes older than 1940 contain at least some lead paint, homes built between 1940 and 1960 have a 50% chance of containing such paint, homes built between 1960 and 1978 may still contain lead paint, while homes built after 1978 are unlikely to have lead-based paint.[16] The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control performs regular studies of housing-based health hazards in the U.S.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

Here is more information from Wikipedia about house painting and decorating:

House painter and decorator

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A modern house painter
A house painter and decorator is a tradesman responsible for the painting and decorating of buildings, and is also known as a decorator or house painter.[1][2] The purpose of painting is to make the house look better or to protect it from damage by water, rust, corrosion, insects or mould.



[edit] History of the trade

In England, little is known of the trade and its structures before the late 13th century, at which point guilds began to form, amongst them the Painters Company and the Stainers Company. These two guilds eventually merged with the consent of the Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1502, forming the Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers. The guild standardised the craft and acted as a protector of the trade secrets. In 1599, the guild asked Parliament for protection, which was eventually granted in a bill of 1606, which granted the trade protection from outside competition such as plasterers.[2]
The Act legislated for a sevens year apprenticeship, and also barred plasterers from painting, unless apprenticed to a painter, with the penalty for such painting being a fine of £5. The Act also enshrined a maximum daily fee of 16 old pence for their labour.[2]

A painter painting a room in a house
Enforcement of this Act by the Painter-Stainers Company was sought up until the early 19th century, with master painters gathering irregularly to decide the fees that a journeyman could charge, and also instigating an early version of a job centre in 1769, advertising in the London newspapers a "house of call" system to advertise for journeymen and also for journeymen to advertise for work. The guild's power in setting the fee a journeyman could charge was eventually overturned by law in 1827, and the period after this saw the guild's power diminish, along with that of the other guilds; the guilds were superseded by trade unions, with the Operative United Painters' Union forming sometime around 1831.[2]
In 1894, a national association formed, recreating itself in 1918 as the National Federation of Master Painters and Decorators of England and Wales, then changing its name once again to the British Decorators Association before merging, in 2002, with the Painting & Decorating Federation to form the Painting & Decorating Association. The Construction Industry Joint Council, a body formed of both unions and business organizations, today has responsibility for the setting of pay levels.[2]

[edit] Tools of the trade

Grille peinture.jpg
The modern composition of paints results in latex formulations being widely used for exterior as well as interior. That reduces post painting cleanup, and reduces the smells associated with petroleum and polyester based paints. Computerized paint scanners formulate new paints to match the often faded colour of existing paints. Many chain stores offer colour matching service.
Modern paints are available in various specialized formulations that can be fade resistant, chip resistant, odor free, antibiotic to resist mould and fungi growth, etc.
For surfaces where a very smooth surface is desired, most retailers carry inexpensive chemicals that can be added to paints to better make the paint flow or lay flat.[3] Such additives are preferable to thinning paint, which can change some of the paint's characteristics.
For the layman, the most confusing element is primer and priming surfaces. For surfaces such as wood, paint alone is too thick and will be on the surface, but not adhere well, resulting in flaking. Primer is a thin paint solution, or even a specialized liquid colour coordinated to support the finish coat, which penetrates into the pores of wood, and allows the finish coat to adhere to the underlying primer.
Priming also results in less paint being needed. For unpainted wood, most laymen expect to apply two coats of paint. However, one coat of inexpensive primer and then a finish coat is much less expensive.
For metal surfaces, primer may involve special characteristics to resist corrosion, prevent impact chipping or improve adhesion of the finish coat.
Especially for problem paint jobs, such as new work, fungal presence or peeling paint, most professional paint retailers offer free consulting services. When their instructions and materials are used, guarantees of 5 to 20 years are available as to adhesion, water proofing, etc. of the finished paint job.
For professional painters, the majority of their time is spent in preparation for paint application, not in painting per se. Cleaning and sanding surfaces, taping and applying paper or plastic to surfaces not to be painted typically involve 50% or more of the painter's total time budget.
Although the brush and the fabric roller were the tools most readily associated with the painter, foam brushes are now commonly used for precise work requiring a straight line. Foam brushes can also be used to create a smoother surface using less paint that dries more quickly than brush applications.[4] Like fabric rollers, foam rollers can also create patterns in the painted surface. Foam rollers are available in a variety of professional materials for high-quality applications. [5] Although used in a variety of applications, the foam roller is commonly used during the painting of doors to produce an extremely smooth finish.
Recent advances in manufacture have led to a standardization of brushes, with many older types of brushes falling from fashion.[2] The spray gun is one of the latest tools in the painter's arsenal. It is powered by an electric, pneumatic or fuel powered motor which pumps paint through a hose into a gun which atomizes the paint to a fine spray. With the airless spray gun it is possible to paint extremely large areas of surface in a short time.
However, sprayed paint when dry can display unsightly patterns if the spraying application does not result in an even distribution of paint.
The ground brush, also known as a pound brush, was a round or elliptical brush bound by wire, cord or metal. They were generally heavy to use, and required considerable usage to break them in. These brushes were predominantly used in the days before modern paint manufacturing techniques; hand-mixed paints requiring more working to create the finish. These brushes still have use in applying primer, as they are useful in working the primer into the grain of the wood. Pound brushes required an even breaking in to create even bevel on both sides of the brush, minimising the formation of a point which would render the brush useless.[2] Sash tools were smaller brushes, similar to a ground brush, and used mainly for cutting in sash or glazing bars found on windows.
Sash tools and ground brushes generally required bridling before use, and a painter's efficiency in this skill was generally used as a guide to their overall ability. Both these brushes have largely been superseded by the modern varnish brush. Varnish brushes are the most common flat brushes available today and are used for painting as well as varnishing. Brushes intended for varnishing typically have a bevelled edge.[2]
Distemper brushes, used for applying distemper, an early form of whitewash, were best made of pure bristle and bound by copper bands to prevent rust damage. Styles differed across the world, with flat nailed brushes popular in Northern England, a two knot brush (a brush with two ovular heads) popular in Southern England, and three knot brushes or flat head brushes preferred elsewhere. In the United States distemper brushes were known as calcimine, kalsomine or calsomine brushes, each term being the U.S. variant of whitewash.[2]
Fitches are smaller brushes, either ovular or flat and one inch wide, that are used in fine work such as to pick out the detail on a painted moulding. Stipplers come in various shapes and sizes and are used to apply paint with a stippled effect. A duster or jamb brush was used to dust the area to be painted before work commenced. Stencil brushes, similar in style to a shaving brush, were used for the purpose of stencilling walls or in the creation of hand-made wallpapers.[2]
Brushes are best stored in a purpose made brush keeper, a box on which a wire could be suspended. The wire would be threaded through the hole in a brush's handle so as to suspend the brush in a cleaning solution without allowing the brush to sit on the bottom of the container and thus cause spreading of the bristles. The solution would also prevent hardening of the brushes and oxidization. These were generally rectangular and stored several brushes. A lid would enclose the brushes and keep them free from dust.[2]
If brushes are cleaned after use, they can last for years. Since most modern exterior and interior paints are latex based, cleaning the brushes after use with hot soapy water and a toothbrush can remove all traces of paint. Oil based paints are normally cleaned with a petroleum solvent such as mineral spirits, again using a toothbrush to remove all traces of paint. Metal "combs" are used to penetrate into the bristles of a brush to remove drying paint.
Although paints are now available in no-drip containers to pour paint into trays for roller application, most paints are sold in metal gallon or quart cans. For large jobs, paints come in 5-gallon containers.
For metal cans, a large diameter nail or punch is used to make drain holes in the lip of the can. The holes allow paint to return into the can. The lid can then be reattached correctly and removed later. Without the drain holes paint will accumulate in the lip, and act as an adhesive preventing the lid from being easily removed later. Closing a lid with paint in the lip can also result in paint travelling 15-feet or more horizontally.
The air in partly filled paint cans forms over time a dried surface film. To prevent development of film, prior to closing a latex paint container add a small amount of distilled (or tap) water that will remain on the top and prevent drying. For oil based paints use the solvent recommended for brush cleaning. When the container is reopened, stir the water/solvent into the paint before using.
Drop cloths, brown painter's paper, dust-sheets, paint sheets, paint tarpaulins or plastic protection films are used to protect nearby surfaces that are not being painted.
Masking tape can be used to define the line between the painted and unpainted surface, as well as to hold protection materials in place. Masking tape is available in several categories. The classic tape is a high adhesive. However it can damage the underlying surface when removed, and the longer it's in place the greater the risk of damage.
Modern delay removal tape prevents damaging the taped surface.[6] "Delicate" tape has about 40% the adhesion of traditional tape, and can remain on a surface for up to 30-days without creating damage.[7]
The less adhesive tapes should be used especially when tape is applied to new work. Depending on the paint composition, "dry" paint may still be soft and easily damaged for 30-days or more.
Some modern house painters in the US, Canada and Australia have adopted colour visualization computer software, developed by companies such as Autech Software & Design, as an additional tool to help demonstrate to customers how their home would look after it is painted. House painters can use a digital photo outputted by this software to show possible colour schemes on the client's home exterior or room walls to help with their colour selection.

[edit] Activities of the trade

Historically, the painter was responsible for the mixing of the paint; keeping a ready supply of pigments, oils, thinners and driers. The painter would use his experience to determine a suitable mixture depending on the nature of the job. In modern times, the painter is primarily responsible for preparation of the surface to be painted, such as patching holes in drywall, using masking tape and other protection on surfaces not to be painted, applying the paint and then cleaning up.[2]
Larger firms operating within the trade were generally capable of performing many painting or decoration services, from sign writing, to the gilding of objects or the finishing or refinishing of furniture.[2]
More recently, professional painters are responsible for all preparation prior to painting. All scraping, sanding, wallpaper removal, caulking, drywall or wood repair, patching, stain removal, filling nail holes or any defects with plaster or putty, cleaning, taping, preparation and priming are considered to be done by the professional contracted painter.
Before repainting, surfaces are usually cleaned with sugar soap (in Commonwealth countries) which usually contains sodium carbonate, sodium phosphate, and sometimes sodium silicate as an abrasive, though formulations vary. In the U.S.A. a similar compound known as TSP is used but some modern formulations do not contain phosphates due to environmental concerns.
Professional painters need to have keen knowledge of tools of the trade, including sanders, scrapers, paint sprayers, brushes, paint rollers, ladders and scaffolding, in addition to just the paint in order to correctly complete work. Much preparation needs to be considered before simply applying paint. For instance, taping and dropcloth techniques, sizes of brushes or rollers, material types or dimensions of rollers or brushes (there are different sizes or types of brushes and rollers for different paints), amount of paint, number of paint coats, amount of primer, types of primers and paints, certain grits and cuts of sandpaper, trim cutting (the act of painting with a brush on the outline of baseboard, mouldings and other trim work), wallpaper removal, and nail-hole filling techniques. Today many painters are attempting to break into the field of faux painting, allowing them more creativity and access to a higher end customer base.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

Here is some information on Drywall from Wikipedia:


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Example of drywall with joint compound, the common interior building material. (This photo shows drywall hung vertically.)
Drywall, also known as plasterboard or gypsum board, is a panel made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper. It is used to make interior walls and ceilings.
Plasterboard panels are also known as wallboard (USA, UK, Ireland),[citation needed] Gibraltar board or GIB wall and ceiling linings (in New Zealand, trademark of Winstone Wallboards[1]), rock lath,[2] Sheetrock (a trademark of USG Corporation), Gyproc (in Australia, a trademark of Compagnie de Saint-Gobain).
The sheets of the drywall can be made from fiberglass instead of paper to prevent mold growth. Mold growth is common when using paper-based plasterboard that has been exposed to water due to plumbing leaks or floods.
Drywall construction became prevalent as a speedier alternative to using plaster-based interior finish techniques, which involved forcefully spreading a substrate of coarse plaster, known as the base (made up of the scratch coat and (optional) brown coat), onto the wall's lath-work before finally applying the smoother finish coat, each layer added in succession and all by hand (see lath and plaster).[3] Drywall, by contrast to plaster, requires hand finishing only at the fasteners and joints. The drywall process requires less labor and drying time, lending its name to the panels used in the assembly.[citation needed]



[edit] History

"Sackett Board" was invented in 1894 by Augustine Sackett. It was made by layering plaster within four plies of wool felt paper. Sheets were 36" x 36" x 1/4" thick with open (untaped) edges."[4]
"Gypsum Board" evolved between 1910 and 1930 beginning with wrapped board edges, and elimination of the two inner layers of felt paper in favor of paper-based facings. Providing efficiency of installation, it was developed additionally as a measure of fire resistance. [5] Later air entrainment technology made boards lighter and less brittle, then joint treatment materials and systems also evolved. "[4]
"Rock Lath" was an early substrate for plaster. An alternative to traditional wood or metal lath, it was a panel made up of compressed gypsum plaster board that was sometimes grooved or punched with holes to allow wet plaster to key into its surface. As it evolved, it was faced with paper impregnated with gypsum crystals that bonded with the applied facing layer of plaster.[2]

[edit] Manufacture

A wallboard panel is made of a paper liner wrapped around an inner core made primarily from gypsum plaster. The raw gypsum, CaSO4·2 H2O, (mined or obtained from flue gas desulfurization (FGD)) must be calcined before use to produce the hemihydrate of calcium sulfate (CaSO4·½ H2O). This is done in kettle or flash calciners, typically using natural gas today. The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper and/or fiberglass), plasticizer, foaming agent, finely ground gypsum crystal as an accelerator, EDTA, starch or other chelate as a retarder, various additives that may increase mildew and/or fire resistance (fiberglass or vermiculite), wax emulsion or silanes for lower water absorption and water. This is then formed by sandwiching a core of wet gypsum between two sheets of heavy paper or fiberglass mats. When the core sets and is dried in a large drying chamber, the sandwich becomes rigid and strong enough for use as a building material.
Drying chambers typically use natural gas today. To dry 1 MSF (1,000 square feet) of wallboard, between 1.75 and 2.49 million BTU is required. Organic dispersants/plasticisers are used mainly to reduce the amount of water, hence reduce the eventual drying time, needed to produce gypsum slurry flow during wallboard manufacture.[6]

[edit] Specifications

[edit] USA and Canada

Drywall panels are manufactured in 48 inches (120 cm) wide panels in varying lengths to suit the application. Common panel thicknesses are 1/2" (13 mm) and 5/8" (16 mm), with panels also available in 1/4" (6 mm) and 3/8" (10 mm). Both 1/2" (13 mm) and 5/8" (16 mm) panels of TYPE 'X' (a gypsum board with special core additives to increase the natural fire resistance of regular gypsum board[7]) are used where a fire-resistance rating is desired. Regular 5/8" (16 mm) panels are used (with or without light gauge resilient metal channels) where additional mass is needed for the reduction of sound transmission.[citation needed]
Drywall provides a thermal resistance R-value (in US units) of 0.32 for 3/8" board, 0.45 for 1/2", 0.56 for 5/8", and 0.83 for 1" board. In addition to increased R-value, thicker drywall has a higher sound transmission class.[citation needed]

[edit] Europe

In the UK and Europe, plasterboard is manufactured in metric sizes, with the common sizes being corollaries of old imperial sizes.
Most plasterboard is made in 120 cm wide sheets, though 90 cm and 60 cm wide sheets are also made. 120 cm wide plasterboard is most commonly made in 240 cm lengths, though 270 cm and 300 cm length sheets are also commonly available.
Commonly used thicknesses of plasterboard available are 12.5 mm (modern equivalent of half an inch), typically used for walls, and 9.5 mm (modern equivalent of three-eights of an inch), typically used for ceilings. 15 mm thick board is commonly available, and other thicknesses are also produced.[citation needed]
Plasterboard is commonly made with one of two different edge treatments—tapered edge, where the long edges of the board are tapered with a wide bevel at the front to allow for jointing materials to be finished flush with the main board face, and plain edge, used where the whole surface will receive a thin coating (skim coat) of finishing plaster.

[edit] Construction techniques

Drywall is delivered to a building site on a flatbed truck and unloaded with a forked material handler crane. The bulk drywall sheets are unloaded directly to upper floors via a window or exterior doorway.
As opposed to a week-long plaster application, an entire house can be drywalled in one or two days by two experienced drywallers, and drywall is easy enough to use that it can be installed by many amateur home carpenters. In large-scale commercial construction, the work of installing and finishing drywall is often split between the drywall mechanics, or hangers, who install the wallboard, and the tapers and mudmen, or float crew, who finish the joints and cover the nailheads with drywall compound.[citation needed]
Drywall is cut to size, using a large T-square, by scoring the paper on the front side (usually white) with a utility knife, breaking the sheet along the cut, scoring the paper backing, and finally breaking the sheet in the opposite direction. Small features such as holes for outlets and light switches are usually cut using a keyhole saw or a small high-speed bit in a rotary tool. Drywall is then fixed to the wall structure with nails, glue, or more commonly in recent years, the now-ubiquitous drywall screws.
Drywall fasteners, also referred to as drywall clips or stops, are gaining popularity in both residential and commercial construction. Drywall fasteners are used for supporting interior drywall corners and replacing the non-structural wood or metal blocking that traditionally was used to install drywall. Their function serves to save on material and labour expenses; to minimize call backs due to truss uplift; to increase energy efficiency; and to make plumbing and electrical installation simpler.

Drywall screws are designed to be self-tapping.
Drywall screws heads have a curved taper, allowing them to self-pilot and install rapidly without punching through the paper cover. These screws are set slightly into the drywall. When drywall is hung on wood framing, screws having an acute point and widely spaced threads are used. When drywall is hung on light-gauge steel framing, screws having an acute point and finely spaced threads are used. If the steel framing is heavier than 20-gauge, self-tapping screws with finely spaced threads must be used. In some applications, the drywall may be attached to the wall with adhesives.

Electric screw gun used to drive drywall screws
After the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceiling joists, the seams between drywall sheets are concealed using joint tape and several layers of joint compound (sometimes called mud). This compound is also applied to any screw holes or defects. The compound is allowed to air dry then typically sanded smooth before painting. Alternatively, for a better finish, the entire wall may be given a skim coat, a thin layer (about 1 mm or 1/16 inch) of finishing compound, to minimize the visual differences between the paper and mudded areas after painting.
Another similar skim coating is always done in a process called veneer plastering, although it is done slightly thicker (about 2 mm or 1/8 inch). Veneering uses a slightly different specialized setting compound ("finish plaster") that contains gypsum and lime putty. This application uses blueboard, which has special treated paper to accelerate the setting of the gypsum plaster component. This setting has far less shrinkage than the air-dry compounds normally used in drywall, so it only requires one coat. Blueboard also has square edges rather than the tapered-edge drywall boards. The tapered drywall boards are used to countersink the tape in taped jointing whereas the tape in veneer plastering is buried beneath a level surface. One coat veneer plaster over dry board is an intermediate style step between full multi-coat "wet" plaster and the limited joint-treatment-only given "dry" wall.

[edit] Water damage and mold

Drywall water damage in a closet.
Drywall is easily damaged by exposure to water. While it can be waterproofed through covalent waterproofing, if waterproofing is absent or if the waterproofing layer is punctured, water will cause drywall to swell and eventually disintegrate, requiring replacement. Drywall is a porous, lightweight substance that supports the growth of mold. It is for this reason that greenboard and cement board is used for rooms expected to have high humidity.

[edit] Fire resistance

When used as a component in fire barriers, drywall is a passive fire protection item. In its natural state, gypsum contains the water of crystallization bound in the form of hydrates. When exposed to heat or fire, this water is vapourised, retarding heat transfer. Therefore, a fire in one room that is separated from an adjacent room by a fire-resistance rated drywall assembly will not cause this adjacent room to get any warmer than the boiling point (100°C) until the water in the gypsum is gone. This makes drywall an ablative material because as the hydrates sublime, a crumbly dust is left behind, which, along with the paper, is sacrificial. Generally, the more layers of Type X drywall one adds, the more one increases the fire-resistance of the assembly, be it horizontal or vertical. Evidence of this can be found both in publicly available design catalogues, including, but not limited to DIN4102 Part 4 and the Canadian Building Code on the topic, as well as common certification listings, including but not limited to certification listings provided by Underwriters Laboratories and Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC). "Type X" drywall is formulated by adding glass fibers to the gypsum, to increase the resistance to fires, especially once the hydrates are spent, which leaves the gypsum in powder form. Type X is typically the material chosen to construct walls and ceilings that are required to have a fire-resistance rating.
Fire testing of drywall assemblies for the purpose of expanding national catalogues, such as the National Building Code of Canada, Germany's Part 4 of DIN4102 and its British cousin BS476, are a matter of routine research and development work in more than one nation and can be sponsored jointly by national authorities and representatives of the drywall industry. For example, the National Research Council of Canada routinely publishes such findings.[8] The results are printed as approved designs in the back of the building code. Generally, exposure of drywall on a panel furnace removes the water and calcines the exposed drywall and also heats the studs and fasteners holding the drywall. This typically results in deflection of the assembly towards the fire, as that is the location where the sublimation occurs, which weakens the assembly, due to the fire influence.
When tests are cosponsored, resulting in code recognized designs with assigned fire-resistance ratings, the resulting designs become part of the code and are not limited to use by any one manufacturer, provided the material used in the field configuration can be demonstrated to meet the minimum requirements of Type X drywall (such as an entry in the appropriate category of the UL Building Materials Directory) and that sufficient layers and thicknesses are used. Fire test reports for such unique third party tests are confidential.
Deflection of drywall assemblies is important to consider to maintain the integrity of drywall assemblies in order to preserve their ratings. The deflection of drywall assemblies can vary somewhat from one test to another. Importantly, penetrants do not follow the deflection movement of the drywall assemblies they penetrate. For example, see cable tray movement in a German test. It is, therefore, important to test firestops in full scale wall panel tests, so that the deflection of each applicable assembly can be taken into account. The size of the test wall assembly alone is not the only consideration for firestop tests. If the penetrants are mounted to and hung off the drywall assembly itself during the test, this does not constitute a realistic deflection exposure insofar as the firestop is concerned. In reality, on a construction site, penetrants are hung off the ceiling above. Penetrants may increase in length, push and pull as a result of operational temperature changes (e.g., hot and cold water in a pipe), particularly in a fire, but it is a physical impossibility to have the penetrants follow the movement of drywall assemblies that they penetrate, since they are not mounted to the drywalls in a building. It is, therefore, counterproductive to suspend penetrants from the drywall assembly during a fire test. As downward deflection of the drywall assembly and buckling towards the fire occurs, the top of the firestop is squeezed and the bottom of the firestop is pulled, and this is motion over and above that, which is caused by the expansion of metallic penetrants, due to heat exposure in a fire. Both types of motion occur in reality, because metal first expands in a fire and then softens once the critical temperature has been reached, as is explained under structural steel. To simulate the drywall deflection effect, one can simply mount the penetrants to the steel frame holding the test assembly. The operational and fire induced motion of the penetrants, which is independent of the assemblies penetrated, can be separately arranged.

[edit] North American market

North America is one of the largest gypsum board users in the world with a total wallboard plant capacity of 42 billion square feet per year (world wide 85 billion square feet per year).[9] Moreover, the home building and remodeling markets in North America have increased demand the last five years. The gypsum board market is one of the biggest beneficiaries of the housing boom as "an average new American home contains more than 7.31 metric tons of gypsum."[10]
The introduction in March 2005 of the Clean Air Interstate Rule by the United States Environmental Protection Agency requires power plants to "cut sulfur dioxide emissions by 73%" by 2018.[11] The Clean Air Interstate Rule also requested that the power plants install new scrubbers (industrial pollution control devices) to remove sulfur dioxide present in the output waste gas. Scrubbers use the technique of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which produces synthetic gypsum as a usable by-product. In response to the new supply of this raw material, the gypsum board market was predicted to shift significantly. However, issues such as mercury release during calcining need to be resolved.[12]

[edit] Waste

Because up to 17% of drywall is wasted during the manufacturing and installation processes[citation needed] and the drywall material is frequently not re-used, disposal can become a problem. Some landfill sites have banned the dumping of drywall. Some manufacturers take back waste wallboard from construction sites and recycle it into new wallboard. Recycled paper is typically used during manufacturing. More recently, recycling at the construction site itself is being investigated. There is potential for using crushed drywall to amend certain soils at building sites, such as sodic clay and silt mixtures (bay mud), as well as using it in compost.[13]

[edit] Types available in the USA and Canada

  • Regular white board, from 1/4" to 3/4" thickness
  • Fire-resistant ("Type X"), different thickness and multiple layers of wallboard provide increased fire rating based on the time a specific wall assembly can withstand a standardized fire test. Often perlite, vermiculite and boric acid are added to improve fire resistance.
  • Greenboard, the drywall that contains an oil-based additive in the green colored paper covering that provides moisture resistance. It is commonly used in washrooms and other areas expected to experience elevated levels of humidity.[citation needed]
  • Blueboard, blue face paper forms a strong bond with a skim coat or a built-up plaster finish providing both water and mold resistance.
  • Cement board, which is more water-resistant than greenboard, for use in showers or sauna rooms, and as a base for ceramic tile
  • Soundboard is made from wood fibers to increase the sound rating (STC)
  • Soundproof drywall is a laminated drywall made with gypsum, other materials, and damping polymers to significantly increase the STC[citation needed]
  • Mold-resistant, paperless drywall[citation needed]
  • Enviroboard, a board made from recycled agricultural materials
  • Lead-lined drywall, a drywall used around radiological equipment[citation needed]
  • Foil-backed drywall to control moisture in a building or room[citation needed]
  • Controlled density (CD), also called ceiling board, which is available only in 1/2" thickness and is significantly stiffer than regular white board.
  • EcoRock, a drywall which uses a combination of 20 materials including recycled fly ash, slag, kiln dust and fillers and no starch cellulose; it is advertised as being environmentally-friendly due to the use of recycled materials and an energy efficient process.[14]
  • Gypsum “Firecode C.” This board is similar in composition to Type X,except that it has more glass fibers,and, it has another ingredient in the gypsum core. This ingredient is a shrinkage-compensating additive, a form of vermiculite. When exposed to high heat, the gypsum core shrinks but the shrinkage-compensating element expands at about the same rate as shrinkage occurs in the water-depleted gypsum.
The gypsum core then is more stable in a fire and remains in place even after the combined water in the gypsum has been driven off.

[edit] Common drywall tools

[edit] Levels of finish

"In 1990, four major trade associations, the Association of Wall and Ceiling Industries International (AWCI), the Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association (CISCA), the Gypsum Association (GA), and the Painting and Decorating Contractors of America (PDCA), presented the consensus document Levels of Gypsum Board Finish. The document was created to "precisely describe" the desired finish of walls and ceilings prior to final decoration. This precise description enables contractors to better understand the requirements of architects and building owners in order to enhance the satisfaction of the client. Specifications that include the Levels of Gypsum Board Finish also promote competitive bidding that allows the bidder to consider the correct labor and materials to finish the wall suitably for its final decoration." [15]
The official document (summarized below) is known as GA-214-96 "Recommended Levels of Gypsum Board Finish".

[edit] Level 0

No taping, finishing, or accessories required.
Usage: Temporary construction or when final decoration is undetermined.

[edit] Level 1

All joints and interior angles shall have tape set in joint compound. Surface shall be free of excess joint compound. Tool marks and ridges are acceptable.
Usage: Above false ceilings or other areas that are out of public view where a degree of fire and noise resistance is required.

[edit] Level 2

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and wiped with a joint knife leaving a thin coating of joint compound over all joints and interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with a coat of joint compound. Surface shall be free of excess joint compound. Tool marks and ridges are acceptable. Joint compound applied over the body of the tape at the time of tape embedment shall be considered a separate coat of joint compound and shall satisfy the conditions of this level.
Usage: As a substrate for tile walls and ceilings as well as in garages, warehouses, and other places where appearance is not a primary concern.

[edit] Level 3

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and one additional coat of joint compound applied over all joints and interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with two separate coats of joint compound. All joint compound shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of final finishes.
Usage: Suitable base for heavy-medium textured paint or other thick finishes.

[edit] Level 4

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and two separate coats of joint compound applied over all flat joints and one separate coat of joint compound applied over interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with three separate coats of joint compound. All joint compound shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of final finishes.
Usage: "Standard" household and office walls. Used with light or non-textured finishes. Not suitable for harsh lighting conditions, which may highlight minor imperfections

[edit] Level 5

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and two separate coats of joint compound applied over all flat joints and one separate coat of joint compound applied over interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with three separate coats of joint compound. A thin skim coat of joint compound, or a material manufactured especially for this purpose, shall be applied to the entire surface. The surface shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of finish paint. The skim coat is a final leveling agent suitable to smooth out a surface to be used under the harshest lighting conditions that may otherwise highlight any imperfections under the finished surface.
Usage: Gloss and entirely non-textured surfaces.

[edit] Defective Chinese imports

There are reports that a substantial amount of defective drywall was imported into the United States from China and incorporated into tens of thousands of homes during rebuilding in 2006 and 2007 following Hurricane Katrina and in other places. Complaints include foul odor, health effects, and corrosion of metal within the structure. The same drywall was sold in Asia without problems resulting, but U.S. homes built much more tightly than homes in China, with less ventilation. A number of lawsuits are underway in many jurisdictions, but many of the sheets of drywall are simply marked, "Made in China", thus making identification of the Chinese manufacturer difficult. An investigation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, CPSC, was underway in 2009.[16] In November 2009, the CPSC reported a "strong association" between Chinese drywall and corrosion of pipes and wires reported by thousands of homeowners in the United States. Further findings have shown that volatile sulfur compounds, including hydrogen sulfide, have been detected as emissions from the imported drywall and may be linked to health problems. Volatile sulfur compounds are emitted from many different types of drywall, and at least one investigation has pointed to high levels being emitted from drywalls manufactured in the United States.[17]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Contractors, offer free estimates to Oakland County, Macomb County and Wayne County Michigan residents for the following services:

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